Essay Test Rubric
The Writing Process
Revising and Editing Marks
Introductions - Conclusions
Synonyms for said - asked
Art of Styling Sentences
Parts of Speech
Noun, Pronoun, Verb
Adjective, Adverb, Preposition
Quotation Marks, Semicolon
Works Cited (MLA)
Writing Rubric Essay Question Rubric
Essay Test Answer Rubric (Grades 5-12)
Name __________________________ Class
Response answers the question exactly as it was asked.
Answer is clear, correct, complete, and not wordy.
Answer is supported with correct and clear details.
Answer can be understood in one reading.
All sentences and word choices are correct and clear.
All technical or specific terms and/or concepts are
Answer is legible. Correct spelling,
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
Goes beyond: (extra effort, depth, quality, creativity, cleverness, understanding)
The Writing Process
A. Get your ideas together before you write.
1. Make a list
2. Make a web
3. Ask someone for ideas
4. Let your ideas flow
5. Free write
6. Use a graphic organizer
A. Look at the ideas you came up with in prewriting - see
if there is any order to them.
B. Begin writing with the ideas that are most familiar to you.
C. Keep your writing purpose and audience in mind.
III. Revise...Make it Better
A. Put your writing through the wash.
B. Revise for traits
1, Ideas and content
4. Word choice
5. Sentence fluency
6. Writing conventions
C. Ask others for input
A. Put your writing through the wash.
B. Edit for conventions.
C. Ask others for input
V. Publish...Make it Beautiful
A. Use your best handwriting or a computer.
B. Polish your document for presentation.
Revising and Editing Marks
|insert a comma|
|apostrophe or single|
|use double quotation marks|
|use a period here|
|close up this space|
|a space needed here|
|begin new paragraph|
abbreviation would appear in the margin,
probably with a line or arrow pointing to the offending element.)
|Ab||a faulty abbreviation||She had earned a Phd along with her M.D.|
See also P/A and S/V
|The piano as well as the guitar need tuning.|
The student lost their book.
|The storm had the effect of causing|
millions of dollars in damage.
|Cap||faulty capitalization||We spent the Fall in Southern spain.|
|CS||comma splice||Raoul tried his best, this time that|
wasn't good enough
|DICT||faulty diction||Due to the fact that we were wondering|
as to whether it would rain, we stayed home.
|Dgl||dangling construction||Working harder than ever, this job|
proved to be too much for him to handle.
|- ed||problem with
|Last summer he walk all the way to Birmingham.|
|Frag||fragment||Depending on the amount of snow we get this|
winter and whether the towns buy new trucks.
|| |||problem in parallel form||My income is bigger than my wife.|
|A student in accounting would be wise to see|
their advisor this month.
|Pron||problem with pronoun||My aunt and my mother have wrecked her car|
The committee has lost their chance to change things.
You'll have to do this on one's own time.
|Rep||unnecessary repetition||The car was blue in color.|
|R-O||run-on sentence||Raoul tried his best this time|
that wasn't good enough.
|Sp||spelling error||This sentence is flaude with two mispellings.|
|- s||problem with final -s||He wonder what these teacher think of him.|
|STET||Let it stand||The proofreader uses this Latin term to indicate that proofreading marks calling for a change should be ignored and the text as originally written should be "let stand."|
|S/V||subject/verb agreement||The problem with these cities are leadership.|
|T||verb tense problem||He comes into the room, and he pulled his gun.|
|Wdy||wordy||Seldom have we perused a document so verbose,|
so ostentatious in phrasing, so burdened with too many words.
|WW||wrong word||What affect did the movie have on Sheila?|
She tried to hard to analyze its conclusion.
1. Attention grabber
Interesting question, fact, or statistic
Riddle or joke
Bold and challenging statement
General background information about the topic
An opinion about the topic
Narrative - shocking or suspenseful story (1st or 3rd person)
Figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, or hyperbole)
2. Movement to thesis statement
The writer makes a connection between the
attention grabber and
the thesis statement.
3. Thesis statement
The thesis statement should be the last sentence of the introduction
It should summarize the main ideas of the paper in one sentence
a. "I am going to tell you..."
b. "In this paper..."
c. "This essay/paper will show you..."
Restate the thesis statement. It may be slightly different than in the introduction.
a. "I have told you..."
b. "This paper has shown you..."
c. "In conclusion..."
Restate the main points covered in the paper
This will be more than one sentence and will tie into the last part of the conclusion.
3. Reference to attention grabber
Refer back to the device chosen
Leave the reader with something to think about
for example for instance
in other words put another way
simply stated stated differently
that is to clarify
specifically to illustrate the point
|Transitions to Add
|Transitions to Conclude or
all in all
|Transitions to Emphasize a
A good...A better...The best
Don't use these Dead Words
Use these words instead of very (one of the dead words).
Use these words instead of get (one of the dead words).
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Amazing - incredible, unbelievable, improbably, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic, astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
Anger - enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
Angry - mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused, inflamed
Answer - reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
Ask - question, inquire
of, seek information from, put a question to, demand, request, expect, inquire,
interrogate, examine, quiz
Awful - dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
Bad - evil, immoral,
wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated, spoiled, tainted,
injurious, unfavorable, defective, inferior, imperfect, substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate,
unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant, cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous,
scandalous, infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous,
nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly, execrable
Beautiful - pretty,
lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid, magnificent, comely,
ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic, pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning,
glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant, glowing, blooming, sparkling
Begin - start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
big - enormous, huge,
immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, large, sizeable, grand, great,
tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive, spacious, stout, tremendous,
brave - courageous,
fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous, audacious,
gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
break - fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish
bright - shining, shiny,
gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid, colorful,
luminous, incandescent, intelligent, brilliant, knowing, quick-witted, smart, intellectual
calm - quiet, peaceful,
still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected, ruffled,
unexcited, detached, aloof
come - approach, advance, arrive, reach
cool - chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
crooked - bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
cry - shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
cut - gash, slash, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop, reduce
dangerous - perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
dark - shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal, sad
decide - determine, settle, choose, resolve
definite - certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
delicious - savory,
delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable, delightful, enjoyable,
describe - portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report
destroy - ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
difference - disagreement, inequality, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
do - execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
dull - boring, tiring,
tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative, lifeless,
insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain, monotonous, humdrum, dreary
eager - keen fervent,
enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
end - stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance
enjoy - appreciate,
delight in, to be pleased with, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in,
explain - elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
fair - just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
fall - drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
false - fake, fraudulent,
counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous,
famous - well-known,
renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious, distinguished,
fast - quick, rapid,
swift, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly, quickly,
speedily, posthaste, hastily, expeditiously, like a flash
fear - fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, awe, horror, panic, apprehension
fly - soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
funny - humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
get - acquire, obtain,
secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, accumulate, win, earn, reap, catch, net,
bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by, regain, salvage
go - recede, depart, fade, disappear, move, travel, proceed
good - excellent, fine,
superior, wonderful, marvelous, suited, suitable, proper, capable,
kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant, agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved,
obedient, honorable, reliable, trustworthy, favorable, profitable, advantageous, righteous,
expedient, helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great,
noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, superb, respectable
great - noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable, powerful, much, mighty
gross - improper, rude,
coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme, grievous,
uncouth, obscene, low
happy - pleased,
contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic, jubilant,
tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
hate - despise, loath, detest, abhor, disfavor, dislike, disapprove, abominate
have - hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, bear, beget, occupy, absorb, fill
help - aid, assist,
support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve, succor, benefit,
hide - conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
hurry - rush, run, speed, race, hasten, accelerate, bustle
hurt - damage, harm, injure, wound, afflict, pain
idea - thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view, belief
important - necessary,
vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential, significant, primary,
considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-known
interesting - fascinating,
engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated, spirited, attractive,
inviting, intriguing, provocative, thought-provoking, challenging, inspiring, involving,
moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant, lively, racy, spicy,
engrossing, absorbing, consuming, griping, arresting, enthralling, spellbinding,
curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
job - work, chore, task, duty, employment, business, position, place, post
join - connect, combine, unite, associate, consolidate, couple, merge, weld
joke - jest, quip, witticism
joker - clown, comedian, jester, wit
jump - leap, spring, bound, hop, somersault, hop, vault, rise, parachute,
keep - hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
kill - slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, abolish
kind - (noun) type,
sort, variety, class, species, breed, nature,
(adjective) kindly loving, gentle, tender, compassionate, humane, charitable, sympathetic
knock - rap, hit, bat, clap, bump, beat, slap, cuff, strike, bash, punch, criticize
know - understand, comprehend, recognize, see, perceive, distinguish, realize, experience
lazy - indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
little - tiny, small,
diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky, cramped,
microscopic, slight, petite, minute
look - gaze, see, glance,
watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep, glimpse,
contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold, observe, view, witness,
perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye, gawk, peruse, explore
love - like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship, appreciate, savor
make - create, originate,
invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate, manufacture,
build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform, accomplish, earn, gain, obtain,
mark - label, tag, price,
ticket, impress, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign, note,
mischievous - prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
moody - temperamental,
changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen,
testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
move - plod, go, creep,
crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk,
mosey, jog, plug, trudge, lumber, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot, high-tail,
streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, scamper, scurry, skedaddle,
scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, gallop, lope, accelerate, stir,
budget, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, slip, glide, slide, slither, coast, sail,
saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle,
wobble, promenade, lunge
neat - clean, orderly,
tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, organized,
new - fresh, unique, original, unusual, modern, current, recent
now - presently, immediately, recently, sometimes
obey - comply, yield, submit, serve, follow, observe
obtain - secure, acquire, gain, achieve, capture
obviously - apparently, definitely, evidently, visibly
odd - strange, peculiar,
unusual, uncommon, curious, quaint, extraordinary, funny,
erratic, eccentric, grotesque
odor - scent, fragrance, bouquet, perfume, smell, aroma, stink, stench, reek
old - feeble, frail,
ancient, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded, broken-down, former,
old-fashioned, outmoded, passe´, veteran, mature, venerable, primitive, traditional, archaic,
conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete
part - portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
place - space, area, spot, region, location, position, residence, dwelling, set, site, station, status, state
plan - plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure,
arrangement, intention, contrivance,
method, way, blueprint
popular - well-liked, approved, accepted, favorite, celebrated, common, current
problem - quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, scrape, jam, predicament
put - place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do, build
quickly - promptly, readily, soon, swiftly
quiet - silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful
quite - considerably, rather, truly, entirely, completely
right - correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral, proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
run - race, speed, hurry, hasten, sprint, dash, rush, escape, elope, flee
say/tell - inform, notify, advise, relate, recount,
narrate, explain, reveal, disclose, divulge,
command, order bid, enlighten, instruct, insist, teach, train, direct, issue, remark, converse,
speak, affirm, utter, express, verbalize, voice, articulate, pronounce, deliver, convey, impart,
assert, state, allege, mutter, mumble, whisper, sigh, exclaim, yell, sing, help, snarl, hiss, grunt,
snort, roar, bellow, thunder, boom, scream, shriek, screech, squawk, whine, philosophize,
stammer, stutter, lisp, drawl, jabber, announce, swear, vow
scared - afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked,
fearful, unnerved, insecure, timid, shy,
skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed, horrified, terrorized,
shocked, petrified, timorous, shrinking, tremulous, stupefied, paralyzed, stunned,
show - display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove, demonstrate, expose
slow - unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, stack
stop - cease, halt, pause, discontinue, conclude, end, finish, quit
story - tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, anecdote, memoir
strange - odd, peculiar, unusual, unfamiliar, uncommon,
queer, weird, outlandish,
unique, exclusive, irregular
take - hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire,
pick, choose, select, remove, steal, lift,
rob, engage, purchase, buy, retract, recall, occupy, consume
tell - disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate,
narrate, inform, advise, explain, divulge,
declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
think - judge, deem, assure, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, meditate
trouble - distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness,
pain, danger, peril, disaster, grief,
misfortune, difficulty, concern, inconvenience, effort
true - accurate, right, proper, precise, exact, valid,
genuine, real, actual, steady, loyal,
ugly - hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible,
unpleasant, monstrous, repulsive,
terrifying, gross, gruesome, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, unattractive
unhappy - miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heartbroken,
sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal, discouraged, sad
use - employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
valuable - expensive, costly, precious, high-priced, significant
vanish - disappear, dissolve, evaporate, fade, sink, perish
very - greatly, extremely, hugely, exceedingly, exactly, absolutely
want - desire, wish, crave, need, require, hanker, fancy
warn - caution, alert, advise, apprise, signal, inform
weird - curious, magical, mysterious, odd
wrong - incorrect, inaccurate mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable
X Y Z
yell - cheer, shout, cry, holler, scream, screech
yet - now, besides, further, hitherto, nevertheless, finally, eventually, still
young - youthful, early, newborn, vigorous, fresh, junior, juvenile, adolescent, green, immature, inexperienced,
Sentence Beginnings The Art of Styling Sentences
1. Two adjectives: Intelligent, hard-working students study every night.
2. An appositive: Margaret, intelligent and hard working, studies at the library.
3. A parallel structure: Intelligent and hard working, Margaret studies at the library.
4. A question: Who could that intelligent, hard-working student be?
5. A prepositional
phrase: In the
brightly-lit classroom, the intelligent, hard-working
students study for an entire class period.
To study all day in the
information-filled classroom is the
of the students.
7. A gerund: Listening and studying all day in the classroom is the students' duty.
8. A perfect
participle: Having sat all day in the classroom,
the students were anxious for
(past participle) soda and chips.
9. A present participle: Smiling at the busy students, the teacher keeps watch.
10. A predicate adjective: The teacher is pleasant.
11. A predicate noun: The well-trained teacher was the obvious leader.
12. An adverbial clause: Until we learned the parts of speech, we couldn't improve our writing.
13. An adjective clause: Andy, who has the mind of a scientist, worked as lab assistant.
14. A noun clause: That he could study all day in the library has never been proven.
15. An exclamation (!): Wow! He certainly is enjoying middle school.
The Art of Styling Sentences
Emerging Writers Developing Writers Advanced Writers
The Art of Styling Sentences
The Art of Styling Sentences
Parts of Speech
Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection
A noun is a word which names a person, place, thing, or idea.
person: Maria, friend, Josh,
place: home, Miami, city, backyard
thing: baseball, homework, secret
idea: happiness, trouble, friendship
A common noun (not
capitalized) is the general name of a person,
place, thing, or idea.
A proper noun (always
capitalized) is the specific name of a person, place,
thing, or idea.
woman Betsy Ross
fort Fort Sisseton
mountains the Rocky Mountains
team the Minnesota Twins
park Bramble Park
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
She dropped her books. He dropped it. Sometimes I talk to myself.
A verb shows action or links the subject to another word in the sentence.
An action verb tells what the subject is doing.
The boys hike along the river.
A linking verb links a subject to a noun
or an adjective in the predicate
part of the sentence.
My new car looks shiny.
A helping verb comes before the main verb and helps state an action.
Lee will write in his journal.
Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. Adjectives tell what kind,
how many, or which one.
Male peacocks have beautiful feathers.
Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs tell
how, when, where, how often, and how much. Adverbs often end in ly.
Max waited eagerly for the next pitch. (how)
The pitch curved inside. (where)
The game is starting now. (when)
Prepositions are words that show position or direction and introduce prepositional
One cat rested on the desk top.
Another cat watched from a window.
A conjunction connects individual words or groups of words.
The river is wide and deep.
We can fish in the morning or in the evening.
Neither Bill nor Jane like the movie.
Ice cream tastes best when it is topped with chocolate.
An interjection is a word or phrase used to express strong emotion or surprise. A
comma or an exclamation point is used to separate an interjection from the rest
of the sentence.
Wow, look at those mountains!
Hey! Keep your eyes on the road!
Apostrophe Colon Comma Dialogue Hyphen Quotation Marks Semicolon Titles Underline/Italics
An apostrophe is used to show a letter or letters have been left out of a word, to form
plurals, or to show possession.
In contractions an
apostrophe is used to show that one or more
letters have been left out of a word.
don't = do not (o is left
she'd = she would (would is left out)
it's = it is (i is left out)
An 's is used to form
the plural of a letter, a number, a sign, or a
word discussed as a word. ("How many to's are there in the sentence?)
A's, 8's, +'s, to's
The possessive form of singular nouns is usually made by adding an 's.
The world's population will double by the year
Did Mr. Berg's lecture explain endangered species?
Note: When a singular noun ends with an s or
z sound. the possessive may
formed by adding just an apostrophe. When the singular noun is a one-syllable word,
however, the possessive is usually formed by adding 's.
Texas' resources (or) Texas's resources
boss's request (one-syllable noun ending in s)
Remember: The word immediately before the apostrophe is the owner.
the kid's custom-designed
sneakers (kid is the
the girls' wide-leg riding pants (girls are the owners)
boss's office (boss is the owner)
bosses' office (bosses are the owners)
Smith, Nelson, Garcia's air band (All three are
members of the
Smith's, Nelson's, and Garcia's guitars (Each person owns a guitar.)
her sister-in-law's pop music
the secretary of state's wife (singular)
their sisters-in-law's tastes in music (plural)
the secretaries of state's wives (plural)
A colon may be used in a salutation, to introduce a list, or between the numbers in time.
A comma is used to indicate a pause or change in thought.
Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks in dialogue.
The hyphen is used to create new words, to join words, to divide a word, and
to join letters and words.
Quotation marks are placed before and after direct quotes
Single quotation marks are used to punctuate a quote within a quote.
Use a semicolon between the clauses of a compound sentence that are not joined by a conjunction.
Use a semicolon between clauses in a compound sentence that are joined by certain transitional words.
Italicize or underline the titles of books, plays, book-length poems, magazines, radio and television programs, movies (videos), cassettes and CD's, pamphlets, manuals, the names of aircraft and ships, and newspapers.
Use quotation marks for short pieces of written work, song
titles, articles from magazines and newspapers,
chapters, short stories, one-act plays, class names, and short poems.
Underline or italicize foreign words that are not commonly used. Also, underline or
italicize scientific names.
Works Cited (MLA)
Key points to remember when doing a works cited page:
Works Cited must be on a separate page
Always underline or
italicize the title of the source if it is a book. Put quotes
around an article or poem.
Alphabetize by the author's last name.
If there is no author, alphabetize by title.
Always indent all lines after the first line (5 spaces, 1 tab).
Always leave 1 space after commas and 2 spaces after periods and colons.
For a book with one author:
Robinson, Adam. What Smart Students Know. New York: Crown Paperbacks, 1993.
For a book with two authors:
Sorensen, Sharon, and Bob LeBreck. The Research Paper.
For a book with no author:
The World of Learning. London: Europa Publications, 1995.
A signed article in an encyclopedia:
Rupp, Ernest Gordon. "Erasmus." Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia. 1991 ed.
An unsigned article in an encyclopedia:
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1991 ed.
An article in a magazine:
Begley, Sharon. "A Healthy Dose of Laughter." Newsweek 4 Oct. 1982: 74.
An article from an Internet site:
Bradshaw, Gary S. "Wilbur and Orville Wright." Oct.